WHITEFRIARS

1718 EVANS John
... Fleet St ...
1745 PALMER & WYATT
... Lombard St ...
1746 ECKSON, N
1758 HARDACRE, M
1761-6 INNECKEN, ASHEMAN & HOPKINS
1766-71 CAMMEYER, C
1786-98? CARR William
1791-2 KUHN George & Martin
1792 ROBERTS & DAVIES
... Essex St ...
1755 RIDER, J
1759 CREMER, SWITZER & MOSTAR
... Silver St ...
1783 CARR, Frederick
... Dogwell Ct ...
1763 TIEDEMANN, RAYMEN & PAULSON

Close
BLACKFRIARS

1743 BASS J & WIESS J
... Broadway ...
1759-67 WAKEFORD L & STANDERT T
... Temple Pl ...
1818 PEARSON, J (no.13)
... see also ...
Earl St
St Andrews Hill
Shoemaker Row
Water Lane

Close
WATER LANE

1739 ROWBOTHOM & LILKENDEY
1748-56 RAVENCAMP, F
1749-51 HORMAN & SAMLER
1754-6 SAMLER, H
1756 GEBBART & HAMMOND
1757 DAWSON & CLADEN
1758-71 SAMLER Harman (no.26) [details]
1762 SCHUTTE & RAVENCAMP
1766-72 LEAR Henry (no.25)

Close
ST ANDREWS HILL

1770-94 SAMLER & Son
1776-8 TURNER Barnard (no.8)
1778 COOK Thomas (no.21)
1778-83 PRESTON Thomas (no.5)
1791 SAMLER H & W
1793-1817 SAMLER W & R
1818-26 SAMLER Wm

Close
AXE COURT, St Peter's, Cornhill

1698 "next door to the sugar baker's" (Sessions Bk)

Close
CASTLE STREET

1781-4 BRACEBRIDGE & Son
1790s BOYLSTON Thomas & Co
1791-2 BRACEBRIDGE & Co
1794 BRACEBRIDGE A & W
1798-1803 BANKS John
1817 BANKE Geo & Co
1821 BANKS Geo & Charles
1822-6 BANKES Geo & Co
1829 BANKES G & C
1830 BANKES, G

Close
PAULS WHARF

1712-22 BAGNALL Joseph
1722> FELLOWES, HOULDITCH & EMERSON
1723 BUTLER Henry & William
1724 BUTLER Henry
1727 FIRMSTONE Samuel
1735 BERKLEY, J & J
1735-39 IDLE Michael
1736 CHAPMAN & EMMERSON
1740 EMMERSON Thomas
1742 BERKLEY & INCE
1742 FULLER Thomas
1743-6 CHAPMAN, W
1753 DANDRIDGE James
1754-9 WRIGHT & PLUMB
1754-9 BARRATT, C
1755 POWER, J
1759 RICHTER Jacob
1759-67 BARRATT & JEMMITT
1759-67 BERKLEY & BRACEBRIDGE
1760-9 JEMMITT, T
1763-88 HALLIDAY Robert
1767 VAUGHAN, J
1768-9 BRACEBRIDGE & GIBBS
1772-9 VAUGHAN & HORTON
1779-84 TURNER Barnard (no.8)
1781 TURNER & SWINEY
1786 VAUGHAN, J & B
1786 INNES, Alexander
1788-92 BOYLSTON Thomas
1789 GARLE John
<1795 LEAR Henry

Close
BENNETS HILL

1732 BUTLER & Co
1744 CROSBY & HALE
1768-9 HALE & RIDER (no.17)
1774-5 + 81 + 90-6 GARLE Tho & John (no.17)
1796 BRACEBRIDGE Walter
1797-1817 SMITH & SEIFFE (no.17)
1815-6 SMITH, JJ (no.30)

Close
LITTLE CARTER LANE

1754 NICHOLS & TOMLINSON
1762 BELLMAN
1770 WALKER Robert
1771 GARLE & HILTON
1771-3 HILTON
1774-90 + 94 GARLE Tho & John (no.24)
1791 SEIFFE
1792-6 SMITH
1794-6 SEIFFE & SMITH (no.24)
1797-9 FRECK & KENDALL
1798-1810 KENDALL, R H (no.24)
1813-17 CHURCH & STOVER (no.25)
1818 COOKSON, SIM & COOKSON
1819 BURG & ATOW
1821 BERG Wernert

Close
LABOUR-IN-VAIN HILL & OLD FISH STREET HILL

LIVH
1735 BOWLES & SCHRODER
1740 COOK, T
1748 BARNSTON & HORTON
1756-61 RIDER, J
1760 HALE, RIDER, GARLE & RIDER
1764-9 RIDER & GARLE (no.3)
1769-72 RIDER Jacob (no.1)
1775-92 WALKER Robert (no.1)
1780 HAHN & SELDENSHO (no.3)
1784 HAHN & QUADENO
1789-92 HAHN & LEE (no.3)
1791 HALES & LEE
1792 LEE Joseph
1794 HAHN & Son
OFSH
1794 BALLENGER Rob (no.6)
1796-8 WALKER Robert (no.1)
1797-1807 MARTINEAU David & Peter, & Mr SPURRELL
1800-21 HAHN G H (no.3)
1801 SPURRELL & VERDENHALM
1803 SPURRELL Joseph (no.1)
1805 SPURRELL & KEMBLE (no.1)
1818 HOGGART & PHILLIPS (no.1)

Close
BREAD STREET HILL

1694 KELING, Edward
1729 LEWIS, E
1732-4 HORTON & IDLE
1735-41 + 44 + 49 + 60 HORTON, J
1740 ORTON John
1741 COAPE & COE
1741-56 NELSON James
1757-66 BAAS Joachim Gerrard
1760-67 GOEBELL John Gerrard
1761-3 BASS & HAMMOND
1768-72 DEICHMAN George (no.21)
1772 BASS Joachim Gechard
1774-9 STRICKLAND & GRIFFIN
1780-1 MILLER & SAMLER (no.21)
1781-90 STRICKLAND William (no.16)
1784-1820 TOWGOOD, DANVERS & Co (no.21)
1785-1812 BRUCKER George
1786 TOWGOOD, DANVERS & VOGLE
1791-1818 TOWGOOD, DANVERS & CERIAKES
1817 DANVERS & KENT
1821 DANVERS Charles
1822 DANVERS John (no.21)

Close
COLLEGE HILL

1723 SAMWAIES, John
1723 TRENCH, Edmund
1729-38 KIDD & HARBIN
1732 FRENCH, WOWEN & FENWICK
1736 HANKIN, J
1740 BARRETT Christopher
1740-54 CORBETT, T & P
1740-67 WOWEN & FENWICK
1754 COPE & COE
1759-67 COAPE John
1761-3 FENWICK, M
1761-2 COOPE & JARMAN
1764-5 SMITH Francis
1766-7 SMITH & PARKER
1772 FENWICK & BISHOP
1778-1805 GROB John-Ernst (no.11)
1781-92 KING & SCHRODER (no.9)
1792-1803 SCHRODER Herman (no.9)
1811 GROB, J
1811-21 SCHRODER Herman & Son (no.9)

Close
LIME STREET

1729 LEWIS, P & T
1732-4 LEWIS & NELSON
1740 LEWIS Thomas
1759-74 LEWIS Thomas (no.42)
1761-9 MARTIN & LEWES (no.42)
1774-7 MARTIN & Co (no.42)
1776-80 SHUM & Son (no.42)
1784-92 SHUM & GLOVER (no.42)
1794-1803 SHUM & GIBSON (no.42)
1804 ALTERIETH, GIBSON & GIBSON
1813-7 GIBSON & Co (no.42)

Close
QUEEN STREET

1707-22 BAGNALL
1720s FRENCH & WOWEN
1722> FELLOWES, HOULDITCH & EMERSON
1726 TRENCH Deputy
1753 COAPE & COE
1754 DANDRIDGE, J & C
1754-64 NASH William
1759-66 DANDRIDGE, J
1764-8 DEKEWER John (no.49)
1766 INNECKEN, ASHERMAN & HOPKINS
1766-8 BARTELS Henry (no.35)
1768-9 DANDRIDGE & BLUNT (no.36)
1769-70 DEKEWER & PERKINS (no.49)
1771 POOLE, S
1774-81 BLUNT Walter (no.36)
1776-81 SEDGEWICK & SPRADO (no.35)
1777 FIXSEN, F
1777 KNOR, Frederick
1780 TRAVERS & GRIFFIN
1781 TILLET, W
1781-92 DAVIS Robert (no.35)
1781-95 KING & BANKS (no.49)
1784-5 TRAVERS Benjamin (no.36)
1786 BANKS John
1789-99 KNOWLES Thomas & Co (no.35)
1792-1807 TRAVERS Benjamin (no.36)
1794-9 WORSLEY & HEINEKIN (no.37)
1794-7 PAKEMAN James (no.57)
1794 SEVERN, B
1796-1800 HAWKSWORTH & PRESCOTT (no.49)
1797 SEVERN, SMITH & COX
1797-9 ACKROYD, T (no.35)
1803 HAWKSWORTH John (no.49)
1803 HEYDELBACH, P (Maiden Lane)
1803 BATLEY Benjamin (Maiden Lane)
1803 TRAVERS Benjamin (no.63)
1805 TRAVERS & ESDAILE (no.63)
1813-7 DINGWALL James (Maiden Lane)
1815-7 EDELMAN & Son (no.35)
1818 DINGWALL Joseph (no.36)
1820 CONWAY & Co
1822 EDELMAN John (no.35)
1822-6 YOUNG, FLORENCE & Co (no.61½)

Close
COLE HARBOUR / COLDHARBOUR

<1672 JUXON & SHEPPARD
1713-40 CHINNALL, T
1732-4 SCHRODER & BURMESTER
1732-41 WILFORD, J
1742-8 WILFORD & EADE
1743 CHIMMER, T
1747-9 SCHUTTE, C
1754-9 EADES John
1758-75 EDE John (no.1)
1759-63 SCHUTTE & RAVENCAMP
1765-6 KETTLER John
1768-74 KETTLER Cornelius (no.2)
1775-84 MOXHAM James (no.2)
1781-1807 HENLOCK & DEWES (no.1)

Close
FRIDAY STREET

1750-2 HOMAN, John
1757-68 WALKER John (no.47)
1769-81 WALKER John (no.16)
1772 PAYNE, S
1782 PIERCY, James jun
1789-90s WALKER Robert (no.16)

Close
DISTAFF LANE

1705 DOXY Robert
1714 ASHURST, R
1721 ASHURST, Mr.
1728 ASHURST, T & W
1740-54 ASHURST Thomas
1747-9 HORNBY, PAYNE & GILHART
1749 ILLINS, H
1753-4 HOMAN, J
1754 ORTON John
1756 GRAMLICH, A
1756-62 HALLIDAY, R
1759-81 HORTON John (no.6)
1763-9 COAPE & JARMAN
1771-1826 BRUCKER George & Son (no.1)
1774-83 JARMAN Nathaniel (no.8)
1779-80 HORTON, MARMADUKE & KERTON (no.6)
1783-1805 BELL James & Co (no.6)
1786 JARMAN & SIKES
1789-98 SIKES John & Co (no.8)
1794 SLACK, WALKER & SIKES
1803 SIKES & SLACK
1811-5 HENLOCK, DEWS & Co
1811 BANKES, FRIEND & Co
1817-26 BANKES Charles & Co (C & G)(no.6)

Close
GT TRINITY LANE

1727-30 UNDERWOOD, J
1740-7 CHILDE & BUCKLEY
1750 BUCKLEY, S
1750 CHILDE, C
1754 CHILD & BUCKLEY
1762-85 FLAGMAN, H
1784-05 CAMMEYER Charles (no.16)
1803-5 RITHERDON (no.16)

Close
OLD FISH STREET

1729-30 NEW, E
1740-3 CROSBY George
1748 COOPER, H
1755-67 BELLMAN, H
1762 CONSTANTINE, H
1765-72 CONSTANTIEN Hardwick (no.6)
1770-94 PIERCEY James (no.6)
1782-1809 BALLENGER Robert & Co (no.6)
1792 PEARKES James (no.6)
1794 BELL James (no.6)
1796-1820 HAHN & Son (no.3)
1812-14 HOUGHTON
1815 CHURCH & STOVER
1816-17 CHURCH Elizabeth
1818-21 VIPOND & RICE (no.6)
1825-7 YEATS & ACOCKS (no.6)
1829 BANKS

Close
ST MARY HILL

1783 FRAISER
1815 HOLNESS Joseph (7 Cross Lane)

Close
PUDDLE DOCK

1728 JEMMET & REHME
1729-50 JEMMETT, E & E
1730 MOSTYN & PAYNE
1742 SMITH Nicholas
1753-4 HALLIDAY & PEIRCY
1753-66 PEIRCY James
1755 WEIMAN, G
1760-2 TIEHMAN & SAMLER
1761 PAYNE
1766 PAYNE & BISHOP
1770-4 PAYNE, J & S
1771-81 COOKE Thomas
1772 SAMLER, H
1777 PRESTON, T
1777 TURNER & LINDENBURG
1781 BRACEBRIDGE, J jun
1800-3 BEESWANK John
1812 STOEVER, J

Close
EARL STREET

1785 BALLINGER Robert
1801 BEESWANK & WYDOWN
1811 STOEVER John
1811 STROVER & BELL (no.15)

Close
SHOEMAKERS ROW

1767-8 DEARBERG Seagmund (no.3)
1769-72 WAKEFORD John (no.3)

Close
LAMBETH HILL

1740 BRACEBRIDGE, A
1750 HENDERSON John
1752-5 GOEBELL, J & G
1759-66 GOEBELL John Gerrard
1762 GOEBELL, G & A
1771-2 FRAILEY Christopher
1777-94 BRACEBRIDGE, A & W

Close
WORCESTER PLACE

1724-33 CLAYTON, T
1769-72 GREENHOW James (no.2)

Close
ST DUNSTAN'S HILL

1612-4 HOSKOM Arthur
1725 SODEN, T
1799 DARKNELL & HOWE (no.4)

Close
KNIGHT RIDER STREET

1741 INCE, P
1742-55 BUTLER, J
1752 HALE, P
1759-60 LINDE Andrew
1772-5 TURNER Barnard (no.5)
1784 MANNING & FRALEY

Close
ST MARTIN'S LANE

1754-9 NELSON James
1760 SCHUTTE, RAVENCAMP & INKEN
1766 RAVENCAMP & KETTLER
1767-79 RAVENCAMP Frederick (no.18)
1781-99 GLOVER, David (no.19)
1794 GLOVER, D & T
1805-11 MILLIKEN & ACKROYD (no.19)
1815-22 ACKROYD Thomas (no.19)

Close
OLD CHANGE

1789-2 KNOWLYS Thomas (no.28)
1796 KELLER Philip
1803 RUDOLPH & DODSON (no.28)
1811-12 BAUMAN, G S (no.28)
1815 DIXON & HECKMAN (no.28)
1817-18 GOULET, A & Co

Close
JOINER'S HALL (BUILDINGS)

1724 ATKINS, A
1737 WRIGHT, L
1752 BLUNT, Sir H & JOHNSON
1761-2 BLUNT, Sir C, W & H
1763-9 BLUNT, Sir Charles
1776-82 BISHOP George SW
1779-81 BISHOP George & Samuel (no.3)
1782 BISHOP, G & S, & BLUNSTONE
1784-6 GRIFFIN George
1784-95 BELL John
1789-2 TRAVERS Benjamin & Co (no.2)
1790 BELL & KRUGER
1792-5 HOMEWOOD Thomas
1792 BELL & Co
1796-1810 BELL James
1797-9 HARRIS & ROBINSON
1809-18 FENN Thomas (no.2)

Close
LOWER THAMES STREET

1735-8 HARTOP & ROTSHOUCH (Tower Hill)
1783-1819 MAN, E D & F (coopers/brokers) (23 Harp Lane)
1795 TOWGOOD & DANVERS (Harp Lane)
1832 GEORGE & HARWOOD

Close
UPPER THAMES STREET

1718-20 MARSH Hawes (St Mary Somerset)
1722 UNDERWOOD, J (Trigg Stairs)
1722-3 REEME, CROOK & JAMMETT
<1723 BUTTLER, Benjamin
1725 TARNNAIES, J (Three Cranes)
1725-33 BLUNT & WRIGHT
1727-9 KIDD, BELITHA & HARBIN (Brick Hill Lane)
1728-9 FELLOWS, T (Five Foot Lane)
1731 BURMESTER, L (Lawrence Poultney Lane)
1735-8 KIDD Robert
1738-40 TORRIANA, J (Three Cranes)
1739 BLOOM, GABHERT & STEPHAN (Addle Hill)
1740 ROTSHOUCH & TORRIANA
1741 ROTSHOUCH & TORRIANA (Steel Yard)
1741-2 BERKLEY, J (Baynards Castle)
1744-58 BARTELS (High Timber St)
1745 COAP
<1746 EMERSON, Thomas
1746-7 TRULOCH & NASH (Three Cranes)
1747-9 BLOOM, F (Addle Hill)
1748-52 LEACHMAN, J (Fishmongers Hall)
1750-3 NASH, W (Three Cranes)
1752-3 MARSH & HARDACRE (Queenhythe)
1753 NICHOL & HORTON (Five Foot Lane)
1754 BARTELS & MASON (High Timber St)
1754-9 LEACHMAN John (nr the bridge)
1755 WRIGHT, P (Somers Key)
1756-7 MARSH, J (Five Foot Lane)
1758-68 BLUNT, Sir C (St Martin Vintry)
1759-70 QUELCH Richard (no.207)
1760 BLUNT, H (Lawrence Poultney Lane)
1760-3 RAWLINSON, DAWSON, NEWMAN & HASE (Fishmongers Hall)
1762 SMITH & LEHMAN (Brick Hill Lane)
1763 RAWLINSON, T & others (Steel Yard)
1763-6 PLUMBE Charles
1764-84 BARBER John & Joseph (no.78)
1766 JONES Richard
1766 HALE & PYCROFT (Vintners Hall)
<1767 PAYNE
1767 BARTLETT
1767-9 BILL & BURTON (Brick Hill Lane)
1768 ELLIS Barnaby (no.34)
1768 HASE, H (Fishmongers Hall)
1768-9 JEMMITT & VAUGHAN (no.25)
1768-9 HALE & PYCROFT (no.68)
1768-72 PAYNE John
1771 GARLE (Kiln Lane)
1771-4 HELMKEN & RATCLIFF (Broken Wharf)
1772 NICHOL, J (Five Foot Lane)
1772 PYCROFT, W (Vintners Hall)
1773 PYCROFT William (no.68)
1773-6 HASE Henry (no.127)
1776 WHITEMAN, J
1776 MARSH John, broker (no.203)
1776-80 CARR & LEAR
1776-92 BARBER John (no.78)
1777 GIBB, C
1777-81 INNECKEN, Carsten
1779-80 TILLETT William (no.68)
1779-88 VAUGHAN John (no.25)
1780 HASE
1780-1 LABORDE Samuel (no.207)
1781 GIBBS
1782-9 BRACEBRIDGE & STREATFIELD (Rutland PL)
1783 WHITEMAN John (Addle Hill)
1783-9 VAUGHAN John & Benjamin(no.25)
1784 ANSELL & PLATER (no.34)
1787 WHITEMAN John
1788-99 SYKES Luke (no.180)
1789 BRACEBRIDGE & Co (Rutland Pl)
1789 FOX Edward (no.68)
1789 HESE Ann (no.127)
1789 HOMEWOOD Thomas (no.34)
1789-95 FAWKES Edward (no.68)
1790-2 SHAW Benjamin, cooper (no.203)
1790-3 HASE Anne (no.127)
1790-3 BOYLSTON Thomas
1790-7 BANKES John & Co (no.202)
1791-4 WIPLE & BEESWANK (no.240)
1792 BARBER John & Joseph (no.73)
1792 TRAVERS Benjamin & Co (no.2)
1793 SYKES, L (Brick Hill Lane)
1794 BARBER Jo. & Mary (no.78)
1794-5 FRIEAKE & Co (no.207)
1794 KNOWLYS Thomas (no.78)
1794-9 WALTON & DETMAR (no.127)
1794-9 WIPLE Charles
1795 KNOWLES, T (Brick Hill Lane)
1795 KING & BANKS
c1795 WATSON Jacob Kruger
1795-9 HANSON
1796 KNIES & PRITZLER (no.78)
1796-1805 EYRE Ambrose (no.34)
1796-9 NICHOLL John (no.68)
1797-1805 KNOWLES Thomas (no.78)
1797-1808 BEESWANK
1797-1808 WIPLE & Son (no.240)
1797-9 SHAW & CHURCH, coopers (no.203)
1800 HANSON & PEARSON
1800-15 BANKES John (Castle St)
1800-21 BASSANO & Co (no.180)
1800-3 FRIECKE & ENDELMAN
1801 GROBB
1803 BAUMAN, G D
1803 MORTLOCK (no.202)
1804 PEARSON
1806 MORTLOCK & BANKS
1807 RITHERDEN & MORTLOCK
1807-21 FRIEAKE H&S (no.205)
1807-32 SMITH John (no.50)
1809-11 RITHERDON Samuel (no.202)
1810-11 REYNOLDS John
1811 FENN, Thomas (no.78)
1811 SMITH & BROWN (no.50)
1813 PENN, T
1813-4 RITHERDON & SUTHNIER (no.202)
1813-5 TROLLOPE H & Co
1815 COSLETT & SOUTHMIER
1815 DANVERS, C (Rutland Pl)
1815-18 EAMER, T H (no.240)
1815 RONALDS
1815-18 ELLIOTT & RUCKER (no.44)
1815-22 REYNOLDS John & Co (no.68)
1817 RITHERDON & Co (no.202)
1818 JACKSON Christopher (factor) (no.79)
1818 EAMET, J
1822-6 RUCKER M.D. (no.44)
1827 EAMER, T H (no.243)
1829 DAY & MARTIN (no.44)
1834 SMITH & Son (no.50)
1834 BANKES Geo (no.16)
1835-36 SMITH Charles (no.50)
1838-40 SMITH Charles (no.203)
1840-51 SMITH & TYERS (no.203)

Close
MINCING LANE

The directories of 1817 & 1839 show
over 30 entries for sugar brokers
in Mincing Lane. [details]

As well as refiners....
1544 BOSSIGNE Cornelius ?
1544 CHESTER William, Sir ?
1544 GARDENOR John ?
1544 MUNSEY ?
1544 POYNS Fernando ?
1585-92 MYDDLETON Thomas, Sir
1732 ASHURST, W & T
1839 HASLEHURST William (no.13)
1839 HEWITT William (no.4)

Close
GT TOWER STREET

The directories show entries
for sugar brokers in Gt Tower St.

As well as refiner....
1790s CAMMEYIER Charles (no.16)

Close
MINCING LANE - London Commercial Sale Rooms

"In 1811, the City's commodity traders, dealing mainly in colonial produce, erected
by subscription the London Commercial Sale Rooms, aiming thereby to rival the coffee-houses
by providing a complete market for the sale of sugar, cotton, coffee, tobacco, indigo and
other imported goods. The new building was in Mincing Lane and the front part comprised
'a magnificent coffee-room' on the ground floor and two public salerooms above, the back
part counting houses on the lower floors and five showrooms above."
".... later in the day, the produce brokers of Mincing Lane would be selling by auction
in the Commercial Sale Rooms their 'foreign and colonial' produce of tea, sugar, coffee,
spices and the rest, with up to 150 potential bidders 'all armed with catalogues and pens'."
In 1845 the concern of Trueman & Cook was described as, "..... the leading colonial broking
house in Mincing Lane: such is the extent of their operations, that it is said, they dispose
of produce of the worth of several millions of money in the course of the year. They are
general brokers, and do not, like other firms, confine their attention to one special article;
they sell largely of sugar, coffee, spices, indigo, etc, upon which they take a commission,
which is their remuneration."
...[from: "The City of London, vol 1, A World of its Own, 1815-1890" by
David Kynaston, pub.Chatto & Windus Ltd, 1994. ISBN 0 7011 6094 2.]

One of the many Offices & Sale Rooms in Mincing Lane is shown left, however for a picture of the Commercial Sale Rooms, click here, then enter 5270 into the search box.

For a detailed map of the locations of many of the City's sugar brokers and sugar coopers, click here

Close

THE CITY

CLICK the for sugar houses in that street, and on for an image.

(For local directory of sugar houses, click here.)   (For national directory of sugar houses, click here.)

 
 

The length of this map represents 1.2ml / 2km.

Where were the Sugar Brokers & Sugar Coopers ??

Back to London Page

 

 

 

 

 

*****

A HISTORY ... told by Five Flagons ...

 

stoneware flagons ... c1820 ... c1838 ... c1841 ... c1858 ... c1880 ... for liquid refined sugar
© bryan mawer 2014

 

This is a short history of a small sugar refining concern, with a slight difference, that ran for at least 116 years and spanned four generations of the same family. It began in the heart of the City of London in the first decade of the 19th century and was sold/closed by the family soon after 1923. It didn't make sugar loaves like most sugarhouses, but produced liquid refined sugar ... capillaire and spirit colour ... and continued in business long after almost every one of its contemporaries had foundered.

 

John Smith - "came from Cheshire, his family were famous in the Vale Royal and he was, I believe, the youngest of 19",(2) ... probably Tarporley.(3) As yet no further details of when he arrived in London. It's assumed to be prior to 1780, for his granddaughter Maria writes in her 'memories', "I remember hearing that he [John] was out in the Gordon riots in 1780 and somewhere in the house of my grandmother kept his buff coat by way of family heirloom Š but I never saw it."(1) John Smith married Margaret Alice Bedell at St Anne Soho, London, in 1790. Their first child, Ann Simm Smith, was baptised at St Martin in the Fields in May 1791 and buried on the first day of the following year at St George the Martyr, Southwark, the Bedell family church. The 7 children that followed, the last being Charles in 1806, were all baptised at St Michael Queenhithe implying that by the end of 1792 this was where John was living and working. Directories show that from 1807 through to his death in 1832, John was a sugar refiner & capillaire maker of 50 Upper Thames St, in partnership with Brown in 1811, and in the latter years the company name was Smith & Son. An early John Smith flagon was inscribed Brooks Wharf.
Capillaire was a water-clear syrup originally flavoured with dried maidenhair fern though later with orange-flower water, much used by confectioners as a flavouring, and also as a cordial. In the theatre advertisements on the front of The Times the sale of capillaire as a refreshment was often mentioned.
John's granddaughter Maria wrote of the location, "They lived in a small house in Upper Thames Street, London. A neighbourhood of narrow thoroughfares, big warehouses blocking and overshadowing small dull unpretentious dwelling houses. There was very little traffic in those days, beyond that of heavy wagons. ... On fine afternoons we often went out for a walk. My grandmother, Kate and I or Lillie and I, as the case might be. Always, I believe, in the same direction by narrow, quiet, little old bye-ways of many twists and angles, of uncertain footways, sometimes of none at all, the small round paving stones only varied by a narrow gutter. Thro' or by a solemn little grimy churchyard where grew three or four trees of scant foliage and black trunks and branches, on to Southwark bridge. There we three, with pauses of observation, paced to and fro. Not many horses or carriages passed over but there was a delightful and ceaseless tide of life underneath, up and down the broad highway, sometimes sailing vessels, a variety of boats and picturesque lumbering old barges. From these came most of the strange odd sounds and voices. Steamboats, I think , were not in those days, at least I donÕt remember them. There was a breezy freshness in the air, a pleasant sense of stir and bustle which we could watch from our quiet stand point and not be disturbed by, which gave our modest outing a great charm" ... and of her grandfather, "My grandfather was a handsome and dignified old man, very kind to us, very courteous to everybody, wore powder and I think breeches and shoe buckles and was altogether very 'point de vise' in his accoutrements. We were very fond of him, admired and reverenced him, but did not confide in him. I think we were a little awe struck."(1)
Maria's elder sister Kate wrote, "My grandfather who was very handsome and quite a beau, wore powder and a queue, he thought a great deal of me as his first grandchild, and I went to school at Brixton with his old friends daughters the Misses Edwards, he used to walk out to Brixton Hill before breakfast to see me and his old friends and return for his days work. He did so, shortly before he died in the Cholera year [along with his son William], though he was 80."(2)
It was son Charles whom John had taken into business, and in his will of 1832 he left him the goodwill of his business as Sugar Refiner and all the plant, stock etc belonging to it. He asked his widow, as executrix, to lend Charles £500 at lawful interest for the purpose of carrying on the business on his own behalf. John Smith was buried at St Michael Queenhithe, however his address is given as 10 High Timber St, a house that stood at the top of Brooks Wharf and adjoined the rear of 50 Upper Thames St. Margaret Alice Smith died in 1841.

 

Charles Smith - the youngest of the children of John & Margaret Smith was born in April 1806, and baptised a month later at St Michael Queenhithe. He probably joined his father's business in the early 1820s at 50 Upper Thames St / 10 High Timber St / Brooks Wharf. Charles took over the business in 1832 and was soon trading as 'capillaire maker & spirit colour manufacturer' though was listed personally as 'sugar refiner'.(4)
Spirit colour was developed as a colouring for rum ... a boiled dark muscovado sugar with a small amount of rum added was produced, and about 3 pints would colour 100 gallons of spirit.
Kate remembered Charles thus, "Then Uncle William and Uncle Charles used to take us for walks in unknown regions, and show us many things. I remember a dispute between my two Uncles as to whether my petticoats were too short. It was just beginning to be the custom for children to wear short petticoats, Uncle William thought it indecorous, Uncle Charles said it was the fashion of the day and there was no harm in it"(2), whilst Maria wrote, "Uncle Charles was younger, more boyish and merrier, and a little given to teasing. We learnt to esteem him very highly in after years, but then he was rather a disturbing element in the day."(1)
By 1838 Charles had moved the business across the road to 203 Upper Thames St, between the church of St Mary Somerset and Fye-foot Lane - a large house with premises to the rear that had previously been a cooperage, for the refining. He had married Sophia Ann Hill, with whom he had 11 children. The first, Sophia Margaret, was baptised in 1835 at St Michael Queenhithe while the family were still living at 10 High Timber St; the second, Kate Anne, in 1836 at St Mary Somerset; the following eight, all born whilst the family was at 203 Upper Thames St, were again baptised at St Michael Queenhithe.

 

In 1840 Charles went into partnership with Robert Tyers under the name of Smith & Tyers Liquid Sugar Refiners, though they continued their other lines of business. Tyers appears in 1841 to also have had a fish sauce warehouse at 58 Borough High St.(5) By 1853 Smith & Tyers, sugar refiners, colour manufacturers & vinegar and pickle makers, had moved from Upper Thames St (possibly the last of the refiners to move out of the City, something that had been ordered around the turn of the century) to 14 Green St, Wellington St, Blackfriars Rd, Southwark, and by 1855 the Smith family had moved to Church House, Newington. Charles and Sophia's eleventh and last child's baptism took place at St Mary, Newington, however, sadly the day upon which Sidney William was born was also the day his mother died.

 

 

 

Robert John Tyers - the son of John & Elizabeth Tyers was born in April 1802 in Wimpole St and baptised at St Mary Marylebone. He married Mary Mallyon of Goudhurst, Kent, at nearby Pembury in 1829 ... I can find no children for the marriage. In 1841 Robert is listed as a sugar refiner(5) living with his wife in Gibson's Hill, Norwood, as well as running a fish sauce warehouse at 58 Borough High St. By 1851 he'd moved to the Kent border and was living in West Wickham. Robert Tyers died 15 Sep 1866 at West Wickham. His will was proved 21 Nov 1866, simply leaving all his estate to his widow, with no mention of the business.
By this time, Charles Smith had taken his second son Frederick Henry Smith into the business, and so it was continued without interruption when Charles died on 11 Sep 1873, his residence being given as 18 Grove Hill Terrace, Grove Lane, Camberwell. His will was proved 14 Nov 1873 with the business being left to Frederick, and the rest of his estate divided amongst his immediate family.
Within a few months of the death of his partner, Robert Tyers, Charles and Frederick H Smith settled with Mary Tyers regarding the business of Smith & Tyers. One aspect of that indenture is recorded in Charles Smith's will - that Smith & Tyers pay Mary Tyers an annuity of £125 for her natural life. Mary died in 1885 at Hastings.

 

Frederick Henry Smith - the son of Charles Smith, born 1841, and brought into the business well before the death of Robert Tyers. I would think he had to prove himself and his commitment to Smith & Tyers in order to be party to the indenture regarding Mary Tyers in 1867. He married Helen Mary Christian in 1867 and they had a daughter and two sons.
Clearly the emphasis of the company changed during the time of Frederick Smith, for his father had always styled himself sugar refiner, as had Frederick himself in the 1871 census, however in 1881 he was a compounder and sugar refiner employing 11 men, and in the new century he was a (licensed) rectifier and compounder, emphasising the mixing of spirits rather than sugar refining even though the trade directories of both 1895 and 1915 listed Smith & Tyers under Sugar Refiners. Only small amounts of spirit colour were required for mixing with large quantities of spirits, so it's possible that refining was reduced to the absolute minimum or they even bought in the spirit colour in the latter years.
The family home was 15 Tyson Road, Forest Hill. When old enough, Frederick's second son Lionel entered the business as a rectifier and compounder and when Frederick H Smith died in 1923 his will stated that Lionel should be given an option to take over the business. In his will Frederick also bequeathed his grandfather's (John Smith) wardrobe to his eldest son, Frederick Charles Smith a solicitor.

 

Lionel Corlett Smith - born 1882, son of Frederick Henry Smith, educated in Hastings, worked with his father at Smith & Tyers. He married Ethel Reid in 1910 and they had two children. When his father died, Lionel was given the option of continuing the business as his own, however he declined and I'm told the family sold off the business. He died in 1967.
So, Lionel was one of the great grandchildren of John Smith sugar refiner and capillaire maker, as was his cousin C Aubrey Smith 1863-1948, the England cricketer and Holywood actor, and the poet Gerard Manley Hopkins 1844-1889, the son of the aforementioned Kate Smith.

 

the family and staff of smith & tyers, 14 green st, blackfriars rd, london
proprietor frederick henry smith (centre rear) with his wife, 2 sons and daughter immediately in front, with granddaughter at front
taken at 15 tyson rd, forest hill
photograph c1909, from postcard dated 1913 - © christopher cobb 2014.

 

NB. Wellington St was renamed Pocock St
and Green St was renamed Rushworth St.

Sources ...
1. Early Memories March 1883, by Maria Giberne nˇe Smith. Unpublished. ©Christopher Cobb 2014.
2. The Mirror, by Kate Hopkins nˇe Smith. Unpublished. ©Christopher Cobb 2014.
3. From notes from Edward Smith, brother of Kate & Maria. ©Christopher Cobb 2014.
4. Pigot's Dir 1836.
5. Robson's Dir 1841.

All flagon images © Bryan Mawer 2004-2014.

Capillaire page

 

Acknowledgements ...
My thanks to Christopher Cobb, 3xgt grandson of John Smith, for his invaluable help with this short history.
He would like to acknowledge his Gt Aunt Kate Hurlbatt from whom he inherited the extracts from the reminiscences of childhood by Kate & Maria by way of his Grandfather and his Mother.
"Kate was the eldest grandchild of Charles Smith sugar refiner, and daughter of Sophia Margaret who married Charles Hurlbatt in 1862. Kate (I guess named after her Aunt) was born in 1865 so it is very likely that she may have known her Grandfather, albeit her parents seemed to have lived in Cheshire.
She never married and became Superintendent of Aberdare Hall, a Woman's College in Cardiff. Her two brothers were killed in WWI.
But for Kate Hurlbatt we would never have known these fragments about 1830 era London."

 

*****

 

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